A cautionary tale of pyridoxine toxicity in cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency detected by two-tier newborn screening highlights the need for clear pyridoxine dosing guidelines

Elizabeth G. Ames, Anthony J. Scott, Kara B. Pappas, Shawn M. Moloney, Robert L. Conway, Ayesha Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Classic homocystinuria is due to deficiency of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxine-dependent enzyme that, depending on the molecular variants, may be co-factor responsive. Elevated methionine is often used as the primary analyte to detect CBS deficiency (CBSD) on newborn screening (NBS), but is limited by increased detection of other biochemical disorders with less clear clinical significance such as methionine aminotransferase (MAT) I/III heterozygotes. Our state has implemented a two-tier NBS algorithm for CBSD that successfully reduced the number of MATI/III heterozygotes, yet effectively detected a mild, co-factor responsive form of CBSD. After initial diagnosis, newborns with CBSD often undergo a pyridoxine challenge with high-dose pyridoxine to determine responsiveness. Here we describe our NBS-identified patient with a mild form of pyridoxine responsive CBSD who developed respiratory failure and rhabdomyolysis consistent with pyridoxine toxicity during a pyridoxine challenge. This case highlights the need for weight-based dosing and duration recommendations for pyridoxine challenge in neonates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2704-2708
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Volume182
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2020

Keywords

  • homocystinuria
  • hypermethioninemia
  • pyridoxine responsive

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