A nationwide retrospective analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the US

Hafeez Shaka, Zain El-amir, Tauseef Akhtar, Farah Wani, Sairam Raghavan, Parnia Khamooshi, Valeria Trelles-Garcia, Asim Kichloo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major cause of healthcare-associated mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients who are mechanically ventilated. The purpose of this study was to describe the various primary discharge diagnoses of hospitalizations with VAP, to identify their demographic characteristics, and to identify risk factors for mortality in hospitalizations with VAP. Hospitalizations with a diagnosis of VAP with mechanical ventilation for over 24 hours were selected from the National Inpatient Sample in 2016 and 2017. In total, 33,140 hospitalizations with VAP were analyzed. The leading principal discharge diagnoses for hospitalizations leading to VAP were sepsis due to an unspecified organism (16.92%), respiratory failure (8.09%), and VAP (6.38%). Mortality among hospitalizations with VAP was 20.9%. Independent risk factors for mortality in hospitalizations with VAP were uninsured status (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49–3.06, P < 0.001), acute renal failure (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.75–2.30, P < 0.001), and liver disease (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.52–2.18, P < 0.001). In conclusion, VAP is associated with significant mortality. Infective, traumatic, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions accounted for over 85% of hospitalizations with VAP. Acute renal failure, the presence of liver disease, and lack of insurance are associated with higher mortality in hospitalizations with VAP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-414
Number of pages5
JournalBaylor University Medical Center Proceedings
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022


  • Mortality
  • outcomes
  • risk factors
  • ventilator-associated pneumonia


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