A New Low Threshold Platinized Epicardial Pacing Electrode: Comparative Evaluation in Immature Canines

PETER P. KARPAWICH, KENNETH B. STOKES, JOHN R. HELLAND, CHERYL D. JUSTICE, JACQELINE O. ROSKAMP

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

A prospective comparison of pacing and sensing capabilities between the conventional Medtronic Model 4951 platinum‐iridium epicardial pacing electrode and a new modified “platinized” version of the same electrode was performed in immature canines to determine if the new electrode design improves pacing in the immature myocardium. The conventional electrode was modified by electroplating platinum black particles onto the surface to increase the effective or true microscopic surface area, yet essentially maintain the same overall geometric electrode size. Both epicardial electrodes were inserted into the right ventricular myocardium with the lead pad sutured to the epicardium, and externalized to the scruff in five puppies (age 3 months). An additional left ventricular lead was implanted to permit chronic pacing following epicardially‐induced atrioventricular block. Acute and chronic sensing and pacing capabilities of each externalized electrode were performed at implant and weekly up to 4 months. Histologic examination of each electrode implant site was performed at the end of the study period. At implant, both electrodes exhibited comparable values for sensed R waves, lead impedances, and pacing thresholds. During the study, the platinized electrode exhibited lower pacing thresholds. Analysis of all postimplant data demonstrated this threshold difference to be significantly lower (P < .01) for the platinized version. Lead impedance and sensing capabilities remained comparable between the two designs. Histologic study demonstrated less fibrotic infiltration at the platinized electrode site. This preliminary evaluation indicates that for the duration of the postimplant study period, the platinized epicardial electrode design was associated with significantly lower thresholds and less fibrosis as a function of time compared to the conventional smooth electrode surface design. The new platinized electrode limits exit block in the developing immature myocardium and permits safe pacing at lower pulse widths and voltages to increase battery life.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1139-1148
Number of pages10
JournalPacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1988

Keywords

  • cardiac pacing
  • epicardial electrode
  • platinization

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