Advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Most transmission occurs during delivery and after birth throught breastfeeding. For this reason, efforts to interrupt transmission have focused on peripartum period and infant feeding. This includes the use of antiretroviral therapy, elective cesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding. This review summarizes recent major studies and new development on the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The application and the impact of such interventions in developing world is discussed. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV should now be integrated as part of basic maternal and child health services in developing countries.
- Perinatal transmission