Alloying noble metals with non-noble metals enables high activity while reducing the cost of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, under fuel cell operating conditions, state-of-the-art oxygen reduction reaction alloy catalysts either feature high atomic percentages of noble metals (>70%) with limited durability or show poor durability when lower percentages of noble metals (<50%) are used. Here, we demonstrate a highly-durable alloy catalyst derived by alloying PtPd (<50%) with 3d-transition metals (Cu, Ni or Co) in ternary compositions. The origin of the high durability is probed by in-situ/operando high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled with pair distribution function analysis of atomic phase structures and strains, revealing an important role of realloying in the compressively-strained single-phase alloy state despite the occurrence of dealloying. The implication of the finding, a striking departure from previous perceptions of phase-segregated noble metal skin or complete dealloying of non-noble metals, is the fulfilling of the promise of alloy catalysts for mass commercialization of fuel cells.