Purpose: Signs and symptoms of delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) may resemble those of vaso-occlusive crises in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). The diagnosis of DHTR therefore presents a challenge to the clinician when treating such patients. The current study describes a patient with SCA and DHTR secondary to red cell anti-s antibody, manifesting as painful extremities, severe hemolytic anemia, and acute oliguric renal failure. Patient and Methods: A 17-year-old patient with homozygous hemoglobin S presented 8 days after partial exchange transfusions with severe anemia and signs and symptoms resembling vaso-occlusive crisis. Clinical course was complicated by intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure. Results: Anti-s antibody was detected in the eluate. Diagnosis of DHTR was made. Treatment included single volume whole blood exchange transfusion and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with dialysis. Conclusions: The possibility of DHTR should be considered in a patient with SCA with hemolytic anemia. Acute renal failure is a rare complication of anti-s antibody- associated DHTR. Such reactions can be successfully managed with exchange transfusion and continuous hemofiltration with dialysis.
- Direct anti-globulin test
- Hemolytic transfusion reactions
- Sickle cell anemia