Applying Bloom's taxonomy in clinical surgery: Practical examples

Faiz Tuma, Aussama K. Nassar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Bloom's cognitive learning taxonomy is widely used in medical education. The revised taxonomy published by David Kathwohl (1956) and his group describes the levels in action forms: Remember, Understand, Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, and Innovate. The taxonomy has been commonly used to design and structure educational goals and objectives. However, most uses occur at the course or program curriculum level, as was originally described. Whereas applying the taxonomy at the level of individual educational activities remained limited for different reasons. Hence, the aim of this article is to promote applying the taxonomy in daily clinical teaching by providing practical clinical examples in a simplified way.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102656
JournalAnnals of Medicine and Surgery
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Bloom's taxonomy
  • Learning objectives
  • Surgical education


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