Neonatal seizures can be difficult to recognize given the variation in their presentation. Hence, diagnosis and appropriate treatment may be delayed. Morphology of seizures in this age group is discussed, followed by common etiological entities. Special emphasis is laid on treatable disease states such as vitamin responsive seizure disorders and benign conditions that may not warrant aggressive treatment. Conditions that may have devastating neurological consequences are discussed in some detail so that the treating pediatrician can provide realistic information to the parents of such newborns. Imaging and laboratory workup is outlined, followed by guidelines for ordering and interpreting an electroencephalogram in this age group. Finally, treatment options in the form of antiepileptics are discussed with mention of new avenues for diagnosis and treatment that may become commonly employed in the future.