Assessing Non-invasive Studies to Evaluate Resynchronization Pacing Effectiveness in the Young

Dipika Menon, Sanjeev Aggarwal, Gilda Kadiu, Kathleen M. Zelin, Peter P. Karpawich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Appropriate non-invasive assessments (ECHO/ECG) of cardiac resynchronization pacing therapy (CRT) among younger patients (pts) with/without (w/wo) congenital heart disease (CHD) are not established. Ejection fraction (EF) and QRS can be unreliable due to anatomy, surgical repairs, and pre-existing pacemakers (PM). This study correlates updated non-invasive studies, including newer strain values, with clinical and invasive hemodynamic assessments of CRT response in the young. Sixteen pts (mean age 18.5 ± 6 years, 10/16 with pre-existing pacemakers) underwent CRT for heart failure (NYHA II-III). CHD included septal defects and Tetralogy of Fallot. Assessment of CRT efficacy was based on clinical findings, direct catheterization studies [pressures, contractility indices (dP/dt-max)], ECG changes, and ECHO studies [including updated global (GLS), left atrial strain (LAS), and sphericity indices] pre- and at 1-month and 1-year post-CRT. After 1 year following CRT, all pts improved (II–III to I–II) in clinical NYHA status. Contractility (dP/dt) increased (932 ± 351 vs 561 ± 178.7 mmHg-sec [p = 0.001]). QRS duration shortened only among pts with pre-existing PM (160 ± 25 vs 134 ± 25 ms [p = 0.02]). Standard ECHO parameters, including chamber dimensions and EF, showed no appreciable changes from pre-CRT values. However, endocardial GLS [(− 6.4 vs. − 9.6%) p = 0.0003] and LAS [(− 5.8 vs − 9.3%) p = 0.02] values significantly improved. Although CRT is applicable to younger pts, accurate non-invasive evaluations of response are lacking. This study establishes that newer strain values better correlate with clinical and hemodynamic changes over other parameters and offer more appropriate assessments of CRT response.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPediatric Cardiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Cardiac resynchronization pacing
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Echocardiography
  • Ejection fraction
  • Global longitudinal strain
  • Heart failure
  • Left atrial strain
  • Pediatric pacing
  • Sphericity index


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