Background: There is a paucity of data on blood pressures (BP), urinary albumin, and mineral excretion in early childhood in contemporary cohorts of extremely low gestational age (GA) neonates. Our aim was to compare BPs and the urinary excretion of albumin, calcium, and phosphate in preterm and term-born cohorts in early childhood. Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted at a single center, involving children <5 years age, born preterm (GA <30 weeks) or at term (≥37 weeks’ GA). Urinary albumin (mg/L), calcium and phosphate levels indexed to creatinine (mg/dL), and BP were measured. Results: The median (IQR) follow-up age of our cohort (n = 106) was 30 (16–48) months. Preterm-born children (n = 55) had a significantly lower mean GA and birth weight and higher mean systolic, diastolic, and mean BPs, compared with term (n = 51) controls. A significantly higher proportion of preterm-born children weighed <10th centile and had systolic BP >95th centile at follow-up. Albumin and calcium excretion did not differ between the groups; median urine–phosphate creatinine ratios were higher in the preterm group. On logistic regression, lower GA and younger age at follow-up were significantly associated with an increased risk of systolic and diastolic BP above the 95th centile; male gender was associated with decreased risk of diastolic hypertension. Conclusions: Even in early childhood, children born preterm had significantly elevated BP, compared with their term-born counterparts. Closer monitoring of BPs in this population may be warranted.
- Extreme prematurity