Association of pulse pressure, pulse pressure index, and ambulatory arterial stiffness index with kidney function in a cross-sectional pediatric chronic kidney disease cohort from the CKiD study

Rupesh Raina, Shyam Polaconda, Nikhil Nair, Ronith Chakraborty, Sidharth Sethi, Vinod Krishnappa, Gaurav Kapur, Maroun Mhanna, Kirsten Kusumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The morbidity and mortality of adult and pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) populations are mainly driven by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Improving CVD outcomes focuses on risk assessment of factors including diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), pulse pressure (PP), and pulse pressure index (PPi), which is calculated as PP/SBP. These markers are also proven predictors of CKD progression; however, their role in children has not been established. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between PP, PPi, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), and proteinuria with kidney function in pediatric CKD patients; it is a retrospective analysis of 620 patients (1-16 years) from the NIDDK Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) registry. The authors analyzed data for three separate cohorts: an overall CKD as well as immunological versus non-immunological cause for CKD groups. An inverse relationship was found between SBP, DBP, and PP with iGFR and LVMI in the overall CKD group. Our immunological CKD subgroup showed significantly higher serum creatinine, SBP, DBP, and PP values with significantly lower serum albumin levels compared to the non-immunological group. There were no significant differences with iohexol-based glomerular filtration rate (iGFR), LVMI, PPi, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) between the two groups. A subgroup analysis demonstrated that SBP, DBP, and PP all correlated significantly with LVMI in the immunological CKD patients but not the non-immunological subgroup. Additionally, AASI data in the overall CKD population were significantly correlated with PP, PPi, and DBP. This study is one of the first to correlate noninvasive measurements of vascular compliance including PP, PPi, and AASI with iGFR and LVMI in a pediatric CKD cohort. Improving our understanding of surrogate markers for early CVD is integral to improving the care of pediatric CKD population as these patients have yet to develop the hard end points of ESRD, heart failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1069
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume22
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

Keywords

  • AASI
  • chronic kidney disease
  • inflammation
  • pulse pressure
  • pulse pressure index

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