Average and local atomic-scale structure in BaZrxTi1-xO 3 (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics by high-energy x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

Vincenzo Buscaglia, Saurabh Tripathi, Valeri Petkov, Monica Dapiaggi, Marco Deluca, Andreja Gajović, Yang Ren

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Abstract

High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and total scattering XRD coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis studies of the atomic-scale structure of archetypal BaZrxTi1-xO3 (x = 0.10, 0.20, 0.40) ceramics are presented over a wide temperature range (100-450 K). For x = 0.1 and 0.2 the results reveal, well above the Curie temperature, the presence of Ti-rich polar clusters which are precursors of a long-range ferroelectric order observed below TC. Polar nanoregions (PNRs) and relaxor behaviour are observed over the whole temperature range for x = 0.4. Irrespective of ceramic composition, the polar clusters are due to locally correlated off-centre displacement of Zr/Ti cations compatible with local rhombohedral symmetry. Formation of Zr-rich clusters is indicated by Raman spectroscopy for all compositions. Considering the isovalent substitution of Ti with Zr in BaZrxTi1-xO3, the mechanism of formation and growth of the PNRs is not due to charge ordering and random fields, but rather to a reduction of the local strain promoted by the large difference in ion size between Zr4+ and Ti4+. As a result, non-polar or weakly polar Zr-rich clusters and polar Ti-rich clusters are randomly distributed in a paraelectric lattice and the long-range ferroelectric order is disrupted with increasing Zr concentration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number065901
JournalJournal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 12 2014

Keywords

  • BaTiO
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • highenergy
  • relaxors

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