Bladder Stimulation for Clean Catch Urine Collection Improved Parent and Provider Satisfaction

Yagnaram Ravichandran, Sarah Parker, Ahmad Farooqi, Amy DeLaroche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of fluid intake with suprapubic and lumbar paravertebral massage for clean catch urine (CCU) collection in infants. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of integrating this bladder stimulation technique (BST) into routine care in the pediatric emergency department (PED). Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. Infants less than 6 months of age requiring a urinalysis and urine culture as part of their PED visit were recruited. All PED nurses and technicians received a standardized training outlining the BST using a video module and print materials. Success rates, bacterial contamination, parental perception of patient distress, and parent and provider satisfaction with the BST for CCU collection were compared with urethral catheterization. Results: A total of 124 patients were recruited. The BSTwas successful in 38% (47/124) with a median time to void of 73 seconds (interquartile range: 19, 151). The BST was more likely to be successful in infants less than 90 days (53%; 95% confidence interval, 0.075-0.046; P = 0.005). A urinary tract infection was diagnosed in 4% of patients, with no significant differences between BST (1/47; 2%) and catheterization (4/59; 7%; P = 0.65). Patients experienced less discomfort during the BST compared with catheterization (mean numeric rating scale score, 2/10 vs 6/10; P < 0.001), and the BST was viewed positively by both parents and providers. Compared with catheterization, parents were significantly more satisfied with the BST (BST, 98%; catheterization, 58%; P < 0.001) and were more likely to consent to the BST in the future (BST, 98%; catheterization, 69%; P < 0.001). Most providers reported that the BST was well tolerated by participants (46/47; 98%), and providers felt that the BST improved parental satisfaction with the clinical encounter (46/47; 98%). Conclusion: The BST for CCU collection is a well-tolerated and wellreceived approach that can easily be implemented into clinical practice with minimal training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E29-E33
JournalPediatric Emergency Care
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder stimulation
  • Feasibility
  • Satisfaction
  • Training


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