Purpose. Augmented feedback is information that is inherently unavailable to a learner and must be provided by an outside source such as an expert or technical display. Such feedback may be divided into knowledge of performance, relating to movement quality, and knowledge of results (KR), relating to a movement outcome. KR has been examined with respect to variables such as timing, medium, and precision. In previous research involving a line-drawing task, individuals presented with higher levels of KR precision outperformed those presented with distracting feedback (nonsense syllables) or none. The present study sought to extend these findings by comparing the effects of KR types on learning a line-drawing task. Methods. On day 1, participants (n = 48) practised in 4 groups, receiving unique extrinsic feedback: control (no feedback), vague, precise, and visual feedback group. On day 2, learning was assessed via retention and transfer testing. Results. For acquisition, a repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a main effect for block in absolute constant error and variable error (p < 0.01), indicating improved accuracy and consistency with practice. During testing, results showed a main effect such that accuracy and consistency during retention were better than transfer (p < 0.01). Follow-up pairwise comparisons indicated significantly better performance for the visual feedback group when compared with the control group (p = 0.021). Conclusions. These results suggest that learning a simple task such as line-drawing may improve through verbal or visual feedback and that the latter medium may be an effective alternative to feedback that is presented verbally.
- Knowledge of results (KR)
- Motor learning