Cytogenetic analyses of 16 cases of Wilms tumor with abnormal karyotypes were reviewed, 15 cases of unilateral tumor and 1 bilateral. Three tumors exhibited an unfavorable histology (i.e., anaplastic changes); the rest fell into the favorable histology group. Of the 17 tumors with abnormal clonal aberrations, 9 tumors were hyperdiploid (53%), 7 had pseudodiploid karyotypes (41%), and 1 was hypodiploid (6%). The most common numerical aberrations in descending order of frequency were gain of chromosomes 12, 8, and 6 and loss of chromosome 16. Structural rearrangements mostly involved chromosome 1, followed by chromosomes 7, 14, and 17. Clustering of breaks around 1p22∼p31→ pter resulting in partial loss of 1p was the most frequent structural aberration. Additionally, i(7q) was observed as a sole abnormality in two tumors and a 7p translocation in two other tumors. Two other recurrent abnormalities were a partial deletion of 14q, seen in three tumors, and complete loss of chromosome 14 in one tumor. All three Wilms tumors with unfavorable histology had abnormalities of 17p, resulting in TP53 gene deletion. These findings provide further support for the importance of gains of chromosomes 12, 8, and 6 and loss of 1p in the development of Wilms tumor. The results also support the association of unfavorable-histology Wilms tumors with TP53 deletion. The nonrandom losses of 16/16q, 7p, and 14q may point to the importance of genomic imbalance in the pathogenetic consequences and progression of Wilms tumor.