Neurocutaneous syndromes are a diverse group of neurologic disorders with concurrent skin manifestations. Most neurocutaneous syndromes have a genetic basis and are believed to arise from a defect in the differentiation of the primitive ectoderm. In this regard, the skin can be a window into the central nervous system and can aid in the diagnosis of neurologic disease in children. The cutaneous signs may be subtle, which places great importance on the physical examination skills of clinicians providing primary care to children. Early recognition can help with proper diagnosis, formulating a treatment plan, anticipating potential complications, making appropriate referrals, and offering genetic counseling to families.