Using the “3Cs” vaccine hesitancy framework which categorizes determinants of vaccine hesitancy across three dimensions—confidence, complacency, and convenience—we identify factors that shape COVID-19 vaccination intake and intention among Black and white residents in Southeast Michigan. We consider both historical discrimination in medicine and contemporary health and environmental crises (i.e., the Flint Water Crisis) as potential correlates. This study uses data from an online survey conducted between March–April 2021 in Flint and surrounding counties. we find that while historical mistreatment of Black people in healthcare and the Flint Water Crisis were of concern, those factors did not directly impact vaccination intention. Rather, concerns over safety, efficacy, and structural barriers related to access and occupation emerge as responsible for lower vaccination rates among Black residents. Effective vaccination programs require that public health authorities consider multiple factors, including the structural realities faced by racial ethnic minority groups which shape their vaccination decisions.
- Flint Water Crisis
- Vaccine hesitancy