COVID-19 Virus and Vaccination Attitudes among Healthcare Workers in Michigan: A Cross-Sectional Study

Maya Asami Takagi, Samantha Hess, Karissa Gawronski, Nicholas Haddad, Bernard Noveloso, Stephen Zyzanski, Neli Ragina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Defining the characteristics of healthcare worker (HCW) attitudes toward the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine can provide insights into vaccine hesitancy. This study’s goal is to determine HCWs’ attitudes regarding the COVID-19 vaccination and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Methods: This cross-sectional study surveyed HCWs working in institutions in Saginaw, Sanilac, and Wayne counties in Michigan (N = 120) using tipping-scale questions. Analysis of variance and t-test were used to measure HCWs’ attitudes toward the COVID-19 virus and vaccines. Results: Most HCWs received (95.9%) and recommended (98.3%) a COVID-19 vaccine. The top three factors that HCWs cited for recommending a COVID-19 vaccine were: (1) efficacy of the vaccine, (2) current exposure to patients with active COVID-19 infection and risk of virus spread, and (3) safety of vaccine and long-term follow-up. Female HCWs or HCWs aged 25–54 years were more concerned about contracting COVID-19. Physicians or HCWs aged 55–64 were less concerned regarding the effectiveness and side effects of the vaccine. Conclusions: Gender, age, ethnicity, provider type, and medical specialty showed statistically significant differences among COVID-19 attitudes. Focusing educational efforts on HCW demographics who are more likely to have negative attitudes can potentially decrease vaccine hesitancy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1105
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • COVID-19 virus
  • healthcare workers
  • vaccination recommendations
  • vaccine hesitancy


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