Autophagy and the (PI3K-Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway play significant roles in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell death and survival. Curcumin (Cur) has been reported to prevent several cancers, including GBM. However, the poor solubility and limited bioavailability of natural Cur limits its application in preventing GBM growth. Previously, we have shown the greater apoptotic and anti-carcinogenic effects of solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP) than natural Cur in cultured GBM cells. Here, we compared the autophagic responses on cultured U-87MG, GL261, F98, C6-glioma, and N2a cells after treatment with Cur or SLCP (25 µM for 24 h). Different autophagy, mitophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) markers, along with the PI3K-AKkt/mTOR signaling pathway, and the number of autophagy vacuoles were investigated after treatment with Cur and or SLCP. We observed increased levels of autophagy and decreased levels of mitophagy markers, along with inhibition of the PI3K-Akt/mTOR pathway after treatments with Cur or SLCP. Cell survival markers were downregulated, and cell death markers were upregulated after these treatments. We found greater effects in the case of SCLP-treated cells in comparison to Cur. Given that fewer effects were observed on C-6 glioma and N2a cells. Our results suggest that SLCP could be a safe and effective means of therapeutically modulating autophagy in GBM cells.
- Akt/mTOR signaling
- Chaperone-mediated autophagy
- Glioblastoma multiforme
- Transmission electron microscopy