Cytomegalovirus viremia and resistance patterns in immunocompromised children: An 11-year experience

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Abstract

We noted a recent increase in number of immunocompromised children with CMV viremia at our institution. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of CMV viremia in this population and evaluate factors associated with drug-resistant mutations. A retrospective review of immunocompromised hosts, 0–21 years of age, who had CMV viremia during 2007–2017. CMV viremia was detected using PCR assays. Genetic mutation assays were performed using PCR sequencing of the phosophotransferase UL 97 gene and the polymerase UL54 gene of CMV using Quest Diagnostics (San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) or ARUP Labs (Salt Lake City, UT, USA). Thirty-one patients were identified, including 10 (32%) during the last 2 years. Of the 31 patients, 18 had hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 5 had primary immunodeficiency, 4 had malignancies, 3 had heart transplantation and 1 had new Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiviral resistance testing was performed on isolates from seven patients: five with persistent viremia (>1 mo), and two prior to starting antiviral therapy. Resistance was identified in three patients’ isolates: two with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and one with recurrent Hodgkin’s lymphoma who had undergone autologous HSCT. The two patients with CVID had chronic diarrhea and malabsorption and had received prolonged oral valganciclovir courses prior to emergence of resistance. The patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma had received a prolonged IV ganciclovir course. All three tested positive for UL97 mutation and two had both UL97 and UL54 gene mutations. Majority of our patients (21/31) with CMV viremia were transplant recipients and ganciclovir resistance developed in 10%. Two had intestinal malabsorption. Treatment with oral valganciclovir should be avoided in patients with poor gut absorption as that may increase the risk of resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-128
Number of pages10
JournalPediatric Hematology and Oncology
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 17 2020

Keywords

  • CMV
  • Children
  • immunocompromised
  • resistance
  • viremia

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