Discourse of race and racism in nursing: An integrative review of literature

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Background: Race is a barrier and source of inequality affecting ethnic minorities in nursing practice and education. Purpose: This integrative review study aimed to determine whether racism and institutionalized racism are explicitly named in the titles and abstracts of peer-reviewed publications on nursing education, leadership, and the nursing profession, and to explore the depth of discussion of racialized concepts in peer-reviewed nursing literature. Method: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review approach was used to review 23 studies published in nursing journals published from 2008 to 2020. Findings: Four themes were extracted: the context of racism discussions in the literature; consequences of experiences of racism; emotional and physical effects of racism on nurses and students of color; and scholars’ recommendations. Discussion: Nursing must start to openly acknowledge the issue of racism within the profession, and to address it by providing safe spaces for authentic dialogue in academic and practice settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-130
Number of pages16
JournalPublic Health Nursing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021


  • culture and diversity
  • nursing education and practice
  • race and nursing
  • race discourse
  • racism


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