This paper fills a gap in the literature of gender bias in household expenditure by analyzing how institutional norms affect behavioral preferences in the context of Iran's household expenditure allocation. Although Iran's institutional norms and culture show gender bias in various forms, there is no information about gender bias in household expenditure. Using descriptive statistics, Engel Curve method and Tobit method with Household Income and Expenditure Survey data from 1987 to 2007, the paper examines the presence of gender bias in Iran's household expenditure. Findings show that women and girls suffer bias in food expenditure, an important determinant of female health outcomes such as fertility, prenatal and neonatal conditions. However, other expenditure allocations mostly work favorably for them. These findings are significant for policy prescriptions designed for generating equity in the allocation of household expenditure to foster economic development and creating a template for countries where girls and women face similar constraints.
- Gender bias
- Intra-household expenditure allocation