Echocardiographic determinants of clinical course in infants with critical and severe pulmonary valve stenosis

John P. Kovalchin, Thomas J. Forbes, Michael R. Nihill, Tal Geva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives. The purposes of this study were to determine the growih pattern of the pulmonary valve (PV) annulus and right heart structures in patients with critical and severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) after balloon dilation, and to determine any morphometric or hemodynamic differences between cyanotic infants with critical PS and asymptomatic infants with severe PS that may account for their varied clinical presentations. Background. Growth of the PV annulus and right heart structures in patients with critical PS after balloon valvuloplasty has not clearly been defined. In addition, the anatomic and hemodynamic factors that determine whether an infant with severe PS will present with cyanosis or without symptoms are not well understood. Methods. Measurements of the PV annulus, tricuspid valve (TV) annulus and main, right and left pulmonary arteries were obtained from initial and follow-up echocardiograms, and Z values were calculated. Hemodynamic data and balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty techniques were reviewed. Right ventricular (RV) volumes were measured from angiograms. Results. Fourteen patients with critical PS (mean [±SD] age 0.21 ± 0.37 months) and 20 patients with severe PS (mean age 2.6 ± 2.9 months) were evaluated at presentation and at 32 ± 33 and 42 ± 32 months of follow-up, respectively. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty was successful in 64% of patients with critical PS and in 90% of patients with severe PS. The PV, TV and pulmonary arteries increased in size after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in both groups at a rate that paralleled or exceeded the rate of somatic growth. The initial TV diameter and RV volume were smaller in patients with critical PS than in those with severe PS (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions. After balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in infants with critical and severe PS, right heart structures increase in size at a rate that parallels or exceeds the rate of somatic groth. The primary morphometric differences between these groups are a smaller TV diameter and RV volume in infants with critical PS. This may contribute to increased right to left atrial shunting and account for the variations in clinical presentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1095-1101
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1997
Externally publishedYes

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