Effects of explicit timing on elementary students’ oral reading rates of word phrases

Gary L. Cates, Katrina N. Rhymer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


An ABAB withdrawal design was used to investigate the effects of explicit timing on accurate oral reading rate of sight word phrases of four elementary students demonstrating difficulty with reading. During baseline, the students were exposed to flash cards with sight word phrases and asked to read them out loud and were not made aware that they were being timed. The explicit timing condition was conducted the same except students were told that their performance was going to be timed and to do the best that they could. Students were told how many phrases they read correctly at the end of 3 minutes in both conditions. Results demonstrated that explicit timing increased accurate response rates. Discussion focuses on directions for practice and future research.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationA Cross Section of Educational Research
Subtitle of host publicationJournal Articles for Discussion and Evaluation
PublisherTaylor and Francis
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781351971850
ISBN (Print)9781884585982
StatePublished - Sep 13 2016


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of explicit timing on elementary students’ oral reading rates of word phrases'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this