Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a widely used form of mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with refractory cardiac and respiratory failure. The use of ECMO in infant and pediatric cardiac failure continues to increase over the last decade with 51% survival to discharge. Despite improvements in short term survival, ECMO remains an invasive and expensive therapy with significant associated complications and both short and long term sequelae. The focus of this review is to provide clinicians with a better understanding of the evolving indications, implementation, complications, outcomes and utilization in unique subgroups of pediatric cardiac ECMO patients.
- Cardiac failure
- Congenital heart disease
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Genetic syndromes
- Single ventricle