Neonatal and pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved over the past 50 years. Advances in technology, expertise, and application have increased the number of centers providing ECMO with expanded indications for use. However, increasing the use of ECMO in recent years to more medically complex critically ill children has not changed overall survival despite increased experience and improvements in technology. This review focuses on ECMO history, circuits, indications and contraindications, management, complications, and outcome data. The authors highlight important areas of progress, including unintubated and awake patients on ECMO, application during the COVID-19 pandemic, and future directions.
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Pediatric intensive care unit