We describe a patient with leukemia in remission for 7 years who developed growth hormone (GH) deficiency and was treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). We compare her growth with that of patients from the National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) database, 145 with leukemia in remission and 725 with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) on treatment with rhGH. We also review the literature on the risk of relapse of leukemia in similar patients. The patients with leukemia in remission from the NGGS database had a significantly lower change of mean height standard deviation score than that of IGHD patients in the first, second, and third year of rhGH treatment. The relapse rate of leukemia in patients treated with rhGH is between 0.8% and 2%. Starting rhGH therapy in patients with leukemia in remission and with GH deficiency at an adequate dosage and without undue delay would improve their growth response. Such therapy does not appear to increase the risk of leukemia.