Health Resource Use in Survivors of Pediatric Septic Shock in the United States

Aline B. Maddux, Jerry J. Zimmerman, Russell K. Banks, Ron W. Reeder, Kathleen L. Meert, Angela S. Czaja, Robert A. Berg, Anil Sapru, Joseph A. Carcillo, Christopher J.L. Newth, Michael W. Quasney, Peter M. Mourani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate postdischarge health resource use in pediatric survivors of septic shock and determine patient and hospitalization factors associated with health resource use. DESIGN Secondary analyses of a multicenter prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Twelve academic PICUs. PATIENTS: Children greater than or equal to 1 month and less than 18 years old hospitalized for community-acquired septic shock who survived to 1 year. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: For 308/338 patients (91%) with baseline and greater than or equal to one postdischarge survey, we evaluated readmission, emergency department (ED) visits, new medication class, and new device class use during the year after sepsis. Using negative binomial regression with bidirectional stepwise selection, we identified factors associated with each outcome. Median age was 7 years (interquartile range, 2-13), 157 (51%) had a chronic condition, and nearly all patients had insurance (private [n = 135; 44%] or government [n = 157; 51%]). During the year after sepsis, 128 patients (42%) were readmitted, 145 (47%) had an ED visit, 156 (51%) started a new medication class, and 102 (33%) instituted a new device class. Having a complex chronic condition was independently associated with readmission and ED visit. Documented infection and higher sum of Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction - 2 hematologic score were associated with readmission, whereas younger age and having a noncomplex chronic condition were associated with ED visit. Factors associated with new medication class use were private insurance, neurologic insult, and longer PICU stays. Factors associated with new device class use were preadmission chemotherapy or radiotherapy, presepsis Functional Status Scale score, and ventilation duration greater than or equal to 10 days. Of patients who had a new medication or device class, most had a readmission (56% and 61%) or ED visit (62% and 67%). CONCLUSIONS: Children with septic shock represent a high-risk cohort with high-resource needs after discharge. Interventions and targeted outcomes to mitigate postdischarge resource use may differ based on patients' preexisting conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E277-E288
JournalPediatric Critical Care Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • child
  • critical care outcome
  • hospital readmission; intensive care units
  • medical device
  • pediatric
  • septic shock


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