Hollow Visceral Myopathy, a Rare Gastrointestinal Disorder: A Case Report and Short Review

Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Arshdeep Batth, Jaspreet Batth, Farah Wani, Jagmeet Singh, Asim Kichloo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hollow visceral myopathy (HVM) is described as impaired intestinal function and motility in the absence of mechanical obstruction. In this case report, we describe a unique case of an 18-year-old female who presented to the hospital with complaints of persistent nausea, vomiting, inability to tolerate oral feeds, and substantial weight loss for 2 months. After appropriate investigations, a diagnosis of gastroparesis was established. The patient was started on metoclopramide, which led to significant symptomatic improvement, and she was eventually discharged home. One month after discharge, she presented to the hospital with symptoms similar to her initial presentation. After further laboratory and radiological investigation, she was diagnosed with severe gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Over the next month, the patient was given an extensive trial of multiple prokinetic agents such as mirtazapine, ondansetron, pyridostigmine, octreotide, and promethazine, but she failed to show clinical improvement. Due to failure of medical therapy, a nasojejunal feeding tube was placed for enteral nutrition. However, the patient reported worsening of her symptoms despite slow feeding rates; hence, a decision was made to start the patient on total parenteral nutrition and transfer her to a larger tertiary center for higher level of care. At the tertiary hospital, the patient was continued on total parenteral nutrition and underwent extensive evaluation. Ultimately, she was diagnosed with HVM after a laparoscopic full-thickness intestinal biopsy showed histopathological evidence of the disease. She underwent isolated small intestine transplant, which led to significant improvement of her symptoms and was eventually discharged home. The patient continues to be symptom-free and follows up with Gastroenterology and Transplant Surgery regularly. This case report highlights a rare clinical condition, HVM, as a potential diagnosis in patients with clinical features of intestinal obstruction without mechanical obstruction.

Keywords

  • chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction
  • familial myopathy
  • gastroenterology
  • hollow visceral myopathy
  • intestinal transplant

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