Human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized children

Nicholas F. Holzemer, Jennifer J. Hasvold, Kyle J. Pohl, Matthew J. Ashbrook, Kathleen L. Meert, Michael W. Quasney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Most children are exposed to human metapneumovirus (HMPV) by the age of 5 y. This study aimed to describe the morbidity associated with HMPV infections in a cohort of children in the Midwest of the United States. METHODS: This was a retrospective 2-center cohort study including children (0–17 y old) hospitalized with HMPV infections at 2 tertiary care pediatric hospitals from 2009 to 2013. Demographics, chronic medical conditions, viral coinfections, and hospitalization characteristics, including the need for respiratory support, highflow nasal cannula, CPAP, bi-level positive airway pressure, invasive mechanical ventilation, pediatric ICU admission, acute kidney injury (AKI), use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay, were collected. RESULTS: In total, 131 subjects were included. Those with one or more comorbidities were older than their otherwise healthy counterparts, with a median age of 2.8 y (interquartile range [IQR] 1.1–7.0) compared to 1.3 y (IQR 0.6–2.0, P < .001), respectively. Ninety-nine (75.6%) subjects required respiratory support; 72 (55.0%) subjects required nasal cannula, simple face mask, or tracheostomy mask as their maximum support. Additionally, 1 (0.8%) subject required high-flow nasal cannula, 1 (0.8%) subject required CPAP, 2 (1.5%) subjects required bi-level positive airway pressure, 15 (11.5%) subjects required invasive mechanical ventilation, 4 (3.1%) subjects required high-frequency oscillatory or jet ventilation, and 4 (3.1%) subjects required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Fifty-one (38.9%) subjects required pediatric ICU admission, and 16 (12.2%) subjects developed AKI. Subjects with AKI were significantly older than those without AKI at 5.4 y old (IQR 1.6–11.7) versus 1.9 y old (IQR 0.7–3.5, P 5 .003). After controlling for the presence of at least one comorbidity and cystic fibrosis, each year increase in age led to a 16% increase in the odds of AKI (P 5 .01). The median length of stay for the entire cohort was 4.0 d (IQR 2.7–7.0). CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalized with HMPV may be at risk for AKI. Risk of HMPVassociated AKI appears to increase with age regardless of severity of respiratory illness or pres ence of comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)650-657
Number of pages8
JournalRespiratory Care
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2020


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • Hospitalized
  • Human metapneumovirus
  • Pediatric intensive care unit
  • Respiratory failure


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