BACKGROUND: Most children are exposed to human metapneumovirus (HMPV) by the age of 5 y. This study aimed to describe the morbidity associated with HMPV infections in a cohort of children in the Midwest of the United States. METHODS: This was a retrospective 2-center cohort study including children (0–17 y old) hospitalized with HMPV infections at 2 tertiary care pediatric hospitals from 2009 to 2013. Demographics, chronic medical conditions, viral coinfections, and hospitalization characteristics, including the need for respiratory support, highflow nasal cannula, CPAP, bi-level positive airway pressure, invasive mechanical ventilation, pediatric ICU admission, acute kidney injury (AKI), use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and length of stay, were collected. RESULTS: In total, 131 subjects were included. Those with one or more comorbidities were older than their otherwise healthy counterparts, with a median age of 2.8 y (interquartile range [IQR] 1.1–7.0) compared to 1.3 y (IQR 0.6–2.0, P < .001), respectively. Ninety-nine (75.6%) subjects required respiratory support; 72 (55.0%) subjects required nasal cannula, simple face mask, or tracheostomy mask as their maximum support. Additionally, 1 (0.8%) subject required high-flow nasal cannula, 1 (0.8%) subject required CPAP, 2 (1.5%) subjects required bi-level positive airway pressure, 15 (11.5%) subjects required invasive mechanical ventilation, 4 (3.1%) subjects required high-frequency oscillatory or jet ventilation, and 4 (3.1%) subjects required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Fifty-one (38.9%) subjects required pediatric ICU admission, and 16 (12.2%) subjects developed AKI. Subjects with AKI were significantly older than those without AKI at 5.4 y old (IQR 1.6–11.7) versus 1.9 y old (IQR 0.7–3.5, P 5 .003). After controlling for the presence of at least one comorbidity and cystic fibrosis, each year increase in age led to a 16% increase in the odds of AKI (P 5 .01). The median length of stay for the entire cohort was 4.0 d (IQR 2.7–7.0). CONCLUSIONS: Children hospitalized with HMPV may be at risk for AKI. Risk of HMPVassociated AKI appears to increase with age regardless of severity of respiratory illness or pres ence of comorbidities.
- Acute kidney injury
- Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
- Human metapneumovirus
- Pediatric intensive care unit
- Respiratory failure