Insulin resistance for glucose uptake and Akt2 phosphorylation in the soleus, but not epitrochlearis, muscles of old vs. adult rats

Naveen Sharma, Edward B. Arias, Mini P. Saian, James G. MacKrell, Abhijit D. Bhat, Robert V. Farese, Gregory D. Cartee

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24 Scopus citations


The slow-twitch soleus, but not fast-twitch muscle, of old vs. adult rats has previously been demonstrated to become insulin resistant for in vivo glucose uptake. We probed cellular mechanisms for the age effect by assessing whether insulin resistance for glucose uptake was an intrinsic characteristic of the muscle ex vivo and by analyzing key insulin signaling steps. We hypothesized that isolated soleus and epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) muscles from old (25 mo) vs. adult (9 mo) male Fisher-344 × Brown Norway rats would have insulin resistance for Akt2 Thr308 phosphorylation (pAkt2Thr308), AS160 phosphorylation Thr642 (pAS160Thr642), and atypical PKC (aPKCζ/λ) activity corresponding in magnitude to the extent of insulin resistance for [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. Epitrochlearis insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake above basal values was unaltered by age, and epitrochlearis pAkt2Thr308, pAS160Thr642, and aPKCζ/λ activity were not significantly different in adult vs. old rats. Conversely, insulinstimulated 2-DG uptake by the soleus of old vs. adult rats was reduced with 1.2 nM (42%) and 30 nM (28%) insulin concomitant with an age-related decline in pAkt2Thr308 of the insulin-stimulated soleus. There were no age effects on pAS160Thr642 or aPKCζ/λ activity or abundance of Akt2, AS 160, GLUT4 or Appll protein in either muscle. The results suggest the possibility that an age-related decline in pAkt2 Thr308, acting by a mechanism other than reduced pAS160 Thr642, may play a role in the insulin resistance in the soleus of old rats. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in old age is distinctive compared with other insulin-resistant rodent models that are not selective for greater insulin resistance in the soleus vs. The epitrochlearis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1631-1640
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2010


  • AS160
  • Appll
  • Atypical PKC
  • GLUT4
  • Glucose transport


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