KASER: Knowledge amplification by structured expert randomization

Stuart H. Rubin, S. N.Jayaram Murthy, Michael H. Smith, Ljiljana Trajković

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


In this paper and attached video, we present a third-generation expert system named Knowledge Amplification by Structured Expert Randomization (KASER) for which a patent has been filed by the U.S. Navy's SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, CA (SSC SD). KASER is a creative expert system. It is capable of deductive, inductive, and mixed derivations. Its qualitative creativity is realized by using a tree-search mechanism. The system achieves creative reasoning by using a declarative representation of knowledge consisting of object trees and inheritance. KASER computes with words and phrases. It possesses a capability for metaphor-based explanations. This capability is useful in explaining its creative suggestions and serves to augment the capabilities provided by the explanation subsystems of conventional expert systems. KASER also exhibits an accelerated capability to learn. However, this capability depends on the particulars of the selected application domain. For example, application domains such as the game of chess exhibit a high degree of geometric symmetry. Conversely, application domains such as the game of craps played with two dice exhibit no predictable pattern, unless the dice are loaded. More generally, we say that domains whose informative content can be compressed to a significant degree without loss (or with relatively little loss) are symmetric. Incompressible domains are said to be asymmetric or random. The measure of symmetry plus the measure of randomness must always sum to unity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2317-2329
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2004


  • Expert systems
  • Knowledge amplification
  • Machine learning
  • Object-oriented design
  • Randomization


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