This retrospective cohort study investigated 53 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy and identified factors predictive of long-term satisfaction of patients and families following extraoperative intracranial EEG (iEEG) recording. The mixed model analysis assessed the utility of intracranial EEG (iEEG) predictor variables, including the seizure-onset zone (SOZ), modulation index (MI), and naming-related high-gamma activity. Modulation index, quantifying the coupling between high-frequency activity at >80 Hz and local slow wave at 3–4 Hz, effectively functions as a surrogate marker of the burden of interictal spike-and-slow-wave discharges. The mixed model specifically incorporated 'subtraction-MI', defined as the subtraction of mean z-score normalized MI across all preserved sites from that across all resected sites. Auditory naming-related high-gamma activity at 70–110 Hz is a biomarker to characterize the underlying language and speech function. The model incorporated 'maximum resected high-gamma', defined as the high-gamma percent change largest among sites included in the resected language-dominant hemispheric region. The model also incorporated the clinical and imaging profiles of given patients. The analysis revealed that complete removal of SOZ (p = 0.003) and younger patient age (p = 0.040) were independently associated with greater satisfaction. Neither ‘subtraction-MI’ nor 'maximum naming-related high-gamma' showed a significant and independent association with long-term satisfaction in our patient cohort. The observed impact of complete resection of SOZ and early surgery can be considered when counseling candidates for epilepsy surgery.
- High-frequency oscillations (HFOs)
- Intracerebral EEG
- Pediatric epilepsy surgery
- Phase-amplitude coupling