Obesity is a modifiable, independent risk factor for adverse long-term outcomes in children and adults. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in a cohort of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) as well as to assess longitudinal trends over a 20-year period. The study group consisted of patients 18 years of age and older followed at our adult CHD clinic. Body mass index (BMI) data were collected from our index period, consisting of patient encounters from 2009 to 2012 (Period 2), as well as during 2000–2003 (Period 1) and 2017–2020 (Period 3) when available. The study cohort was subdivided into three groups per published guidelines: simple, moderate, and greater CHD complexity. The prevalence of obesity and overweight status was compared among the different groups as well as with published data (NHANES). Our cohort in Period 2 consisted of 261 subjects. The median age (25–75% interquartile range) for Period 2 was 27.6 (21.1–35.9) years and BMI was 25.2 (21.7–30.0) kg/m2 with 8.0% underweight, 40.0% with normal weight, 27.0% overweight, and 25% obese. 95 patients had follow-up data from each time period, with 96% of patients having moderate or greater complexity of CHD. The combined percentage of overweight and obese patients for the moderate and greater complex CHD groups increased from 42 and 37% in period 1 to 60% and 65% in period 3, respectively. The percentage of obese patients with moderate and greater CHD complexity increased by 250% and 55%, respectively, from Period 1 to 3. Our study cohort had a high prevalence of overweight and obese weight status. Given adults with CHD have high baseline cardiovascular morbidity, the presence of obesity can increase their risk for poor outcomes, highlighting the need for prevention of this modifiable risk factor.
- Adult congenital heart disease
- Body mass index