Measurement Invariance of the Student Risk Screening Scale Across Time and Gender

Stephanie Secord Fredrick, Daniel D. Drevon, Megan Jervinsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Universal screening for behavioral/mental health risk is a critical component of multitiered systems of support, allowing for early identification of students in need of prevention and/or intervention services. The Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) is one commonly used universal screening tool intended to measure externalizing behavior difficulties. Although the reliability and criterion-related validity of the SRSS has been studied extensively, there are limited data supporting its construct validity. To this end, the current study investigated the internal structure of the SRSS and the degree to which it demonstrated measurement invariance across time (i.e., fall, winter, spring) and gender (i.e., male, female). Fifty-five teachers completed the SRSS for 1,220 students in kindergarten through 5th grade across three elementary schools during fall, winter, and spring benchmarking periods. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the SRSS as a single-factor measure of externalizing behavior difficulties. Results of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported its measurement invariance across time and gender. These findings further establish the psychometric defensibility of the SRSS as used within multitiered systems of support.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-167
Number of pages9
JournalSchool psychology (Washington, D.C.)
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2019


  • behavior assessment
  • measurement invariance
  • universal screening


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