Mechanical ventilation for neonates

Nithi Fernandes, Sanjay Chawla

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Common indications for the need for respiratory support in neonates include respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to surfactant deficiency, apnea of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), meconium aspiration syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, pulmonary hypoplasia due to congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease, and encephalopathy affecting respiratory drive and airway control. Differences in size, maturity, developmental stage, anatomy and physiology need to be taken into account while providing respiratory support. RDS occurs due to deficiency of surfactant which decreases the compliance and causes hypoxemia due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch due to atelectasis. Administration of surfactant is effective in treating RDS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMechanical Ventilation in Neonates and Children
Subtitle of host publicationA Pathophysiology-Based Management Approach
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages27
ISBN (Electronic)9783030837389
ISBN (Print)9783030837372
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
  • Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • Mechanical ventilation
  • Meconium aspiration syndrome
  • Neonate
  • Respiratory distress syndrome
  • Surfactant
  • Transient tachypnea of newborn
  • V:Q mismatch


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