Metacognitive performance, the tip-of-tongue experience, is not disrupted in Parkinsonian patients

Justin D. Oh-Lee, Sarah M. Szymkowicz, Stefanie L. Smith, Hajime Otani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The present study investigated whether a form of metamemory, the tip-of-tongue phenomenon (TOT), was affected in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The PD patient (n = 22), age-matched elderly control (n = 22), and college student control (n = 46) groups were compared on a motor timing task and TOT measures. Motor timing was assessed using a cued hand-clapping task, whereas TOT was assessed using general knowledge questions. The results indicated that motor timing was significantly impaired in the PD group relative to both control groups. However, all of the TOT metacognitive measures: frequency, strength, and accuracy were statistically equivalent between the PD patients and elderly control groups, both of whom showed significantly better memory performance than college controls. These findings demonstrate that TOT metamemory is not compromised in PD patients, and that further insight into TOT mechanisms in PD may prove helpful in developing novel intervention strategies to enhance memory and general cognitive functions in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number174079
JournalParkinson's Disease
StatePublished - 2012


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