Modeling neurological disorders in 3D organoids using human-derived pluripotent stem cells.

Raj Bose, Gary Dunbar, Soumyabrata Banerjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Modeling neurological disorders is challenging because they often have both endogenous and exogenous causes. Brain organoids consist of three-dimensional (3D) self-organizing brain tissue which increasingly is being used to model various aspects of brain development and disorders, such as the generation of neurons, neuronal migration, and functional networks. These organoids have been recognized as important in vitro tools to model developmental features of the brain, including neurological disorders, which can provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in those disorders. In this review, we describe recent advances in the generation of two-dimensional (2D), 3D, and blood-brain barrier models that were derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and we discuss their advantages and limitations in modeling diseases, as well as explore the development of a vascularized and functional 3D model of brain processes. This review also examines the applications of brain organoids for modeling major neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number640212
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, May 10,
StatePublished - May 10 2021


  • blood-brain barrier
  • hiPSCs
  • neural organoids
  • neurological disorders
  • vascularization


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