Musculoskeletal parameters of muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow and the effect of sarcomere length sample size on estimation of optimal muscle length

Joseph Langenderfer, Seth A. Jerabek, Vijay B. Thangamani, John E. Kuhn, Richard E. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Knowledge of musculoskeletal parameters is essential to understanding and modeling a muscle's force generating capability. A study of musculoskeletal parameters was conducted in two parts: (I) Empirical measurement of upper extremity musculoskeletal parameters. (II) Computational bootstrap simulation to examine statistical power of detecting optimal muscle length as a function of sarcomere length sample size and effect size. Methods. Parameters were determined with a cadaver model. Sarcomere lengths were measured for 120 samples per muscle using laser diffraction and the mean sarcomere length used to estimate optimal muscle length. A bootstrap computational simulation was conducted to estimate variance in mean sarcomere length as a function of sample size. Statistical power for detecting optimal muscle length as a function of sample size and effect size was then determined. Findings. Parameters are reported in tabular format. Power is 80% at approximately 85, 50, 40 and 25 samples for effect sizes of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 mm respectively. Interpretation. Musculoskeletal parameters for predicting muscle forces can be adequately measured in a cadaver model. Measurement of 40-60 sarcomere lengths per muscle is sufficient to calculate mean sarcomere length for estimating optimal muscle length with power of 80% for an effect size of 0.75-1.0 mm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)664-670
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Biomechanics
Volume19
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bootstrap
  • Elbow
  • Muscle architecture
  • Sample size
  • Sarcomere length
  • Shoulder

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