Some isolated populations exhibit an increased prevalence of rare recessive diseases. The island of Newfoundland is a characteristic geographic isolate, settled by a small number of families primarily during the late 1700s and early 1800s. During our studies of this population, we identified a group of families exhibiting a retinal dystrophy reminiscent of retinitis punctata albescens but with a substantially lower age at onset and more-rapid and distinctive progression, a disorder that we termed "Newfoundland rod-cone dystrophy" (NFRCD). The size of one of these families was sufficient to allow us to perform a genomewide screen to map the NFRCD locus. We detected significant linkage to markers on the long arm of chromosome 15, in a region encompassing RLBP1, the gene encoding the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein. Previously, mutations in RLBP1 have been associated with other retinal dystrophies, leading us to hypothesize that RLBP1 mutations might also cause NFRCD. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced all coding exons and splice junctions of RLBP1. We detected two sequence alterations, each of which is likely to be pathogenic, since each segregates with the disease and is predicted to interfere with mRNA splicing. In contrast to some previously reported RLBP1 mutations, which yield a protein that may retain some residual activity, each NFRCD mutation is likely to give rise to a null allele. This difference may account for the severe phenotype in these families and exemplifies the molecular continuum that underlies clinically distinct but genetically related entities.