Nitrogen source and mineral optimization enhance D-xylose conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124

Patricia J. Slininger, Bruce S. Dien, Steven W. Gorsich, Zonglin L. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nutrition-based strategies to optimize xylose to ethanol conversion by Pichia stipitis were identified in growing and stationary-phase cultures provided with a defined medium varied in nitrogen, vitamin, purine/pyrimidine, and mineral content via full or partial factorial designs. It is surprising to note that stationary-phase cultures were unable to ferment xylose (or glucose) to ethanol without the addition of a nitrogen source, such as amino acids. Ethanol accumulation increased with arginine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, and tyrosine, but declined with isoleucine. Ethanol production from 150 g/l xylose was maximized (61±9 g/l) by providing C:N in the vicinity of ∼57-126:1 and optimizing the combination of urea and amino acids to supply 40-80 % nitrogen from urea and 60-20 % from amino acids (casamino acids supplemented with tryptophan and cysteine). When either urea or amino acids were used as sole nitrogen source, ethanol accumulation dropped to 11 or 24 g/l, respectively, from the maximum of 46 g/l for the optimal nitrogen combination. The interaction of minerals with amino acids and/or urea was key to optimizing ethanol production by cells in both growing and stationary-phase cultures. In nongrowing cultures supplied with nitrogen as amino acids, ethanol concentration increased from 24 to 54 g/l with the addition of an optimized mineral supplement of Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Zn, and others.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285-1296
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2006

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