Numbered heads together as a tier 1 instructional strategy in multitiered systems of support

William C. Hunter, Lawrence Maheady, Andrea D. Jasper, Robert L. Williamson, Renee C. Murley, Elizabeth Stratton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Federal mandates (Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004; No Child Left Behind Act, 2001) require teachers to accommodate students with more diverse academic and behavioral needs in inclusive general educational settings. To assist general educators in meeting this instructional challenge, multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) such as response to intervention (RtI) and positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) were established in schools nationwide. There is still a need, however, for classroom- based interventions with empirical support that are feasible to implement in whole-class settings and acceptable to teachers and students. Here, Numbered Heads Together (NHT), an alternative questioning strategy, is offered as a potentially effective Tier 1 intervention that can be used to improve student performance in general education classrooms. Extant research findings are described, procedures for using NHT in classroom settings are discussed, and future directions for research and practice are offered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-362
Number of pages18
JournalEducation and Treatment of Children
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2015


  • Active student engagement
  • Cooperative learning
  • Multi-tiered systems of support
  • Numbered heads together
  • Teacher questioning


Dive into the research topics of 'Numbered heads together as a tier 1 instructional strategy in multitiered systems of support'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this