Researchers have looked for rapidly- and objectively-measurable electrophysiology biomarkers that accurately localize the epileptogenic zone. Promising candidates include interictal high-frequency oscillation and phase-amplitude coupling. Investigators have independently created the toolboxes that compute the high-frequency oscillation rate and the severity of phase-amplitude coupling. This study of 135 patients determined what toolboxes and analytic approaches would optimally classify patients achieving post-operative seizure control. Four different detector toolboxes computed the rate of high-frequency oscillation at ≥80 Hz at intracranial EEG channels. Another toolbox calculated the modulation index reflecting the strength of phase-amplitude coupling between high-frequency oscillation and slow-wave at 3-4 Hz. We defined the completeness of resection of interictally-abnormal regions as the subtraction of high-frequency oscillation rate (or modulation index) averaged across all preserved sites from that averaged across all resected sites. We computed the outcome classification accuracy of the logistic regression-based standard model considering clinical, ictal intracranial EEG and neuroimaging variables alone. We then determined how well the incorporation of high-frequency oscillation/modulation index would improve the standard model mentioned above. To assess the anatomical variability across non-epileptic sites, we generated the normative atlas of detector-specific high-frequency oscillation and modulation index. Each atlas allowed us to compute the statistical deviation of high-frequency oscillation/modulation index from the non-epileptic mean. We determined whether the model accuracy would be improved by incorporating absolute or normalized high-frequency oscillation/modulation index as a biomarker assessing interictally-abnormal regions. We finally determined whether the model accuracy would be improved by selectively incorporating high-frequency oscillation verified to have high-frequency oscillatory components unattributable to a high-pass filtering effect. Ninety-five patients achieved successful seizure control, defined as International League against Epilepsy class 1 outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that complete resection of interictally-abnormal regions additively increased the chance of success. The model accuracy was further improved by incorporating z-score normalized high-frequency oscillation/modulation index or selective incorporation of verified high-frequency oscillation. The standard model had a classification accuracy of 0.75. Incorporation of normalized high-frequency oscillation/modulation index or verified high-frequency oscillation improved the classification accuracy up to 0.82. These outcome prediction models survived the cross-validation process and demonstrated an agreement between the model-based likelihood of success and the observed success on an individual basis. Interictal high-frequency oscillation and modulation index had a comparably additive utility in epilepsy presurgical evaluation. Our empirical data support the theoretical notion that the prediction of post-operative seizure outcomes can be optimized with the consideration of both interictal and ictal abnormalities.
- electrocorticography (ECoG)
- high-frequency oscillation (HFO)
- invasive recording
- modulation index (MI)
- phase-amplitude coupling (PAC)