On the moisture origins of tornadic thunderstorms

Maria J. Molina, John T. Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Tornadic thunderstorms rely on the availability of sufficient low-level moisture, but the source regions of that moisture have not been explicitly demarcated. Using the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory HYSPLIT model and a Lagrangian-based diagnostic, moisture attribution was conducted to identify the moisture source regions of tornadic convection. This study reveals a seasonal cycle in the origins and advection patterns of water vapor contributing to winter and spring tornado-producing storms (1981-2017). The Gulf of Mexico is shown to be the predominant source of moisture during both winter and spring, making up more than 50% of all contributions. During winter, substantial moisture contributions for tornadic convection also emanate from the western Caribbean Sea (> 19%) and North Atlantic Ocean (> 12%). During late spring, land areas (e.g., soil and vegetation) of the contiguous United States (CONUS) play a more influential role (> 24%). Moisture attribution was also conducted for nontornadic cases and tornado outbreaks. Findings show that moisture sources of nontornadic events are more proximal to the CONUS than moisture sources of tornado outbreaks. Oceanic influences on the water vapor content of air parcels were also explored to determine if they can increase the likelihood of an air mass attaining moisture that will eventually contribute to severe thunderstorms. Warmer sea surface temperatures were generally found to enhance evaporative fluxes of overlying air parcels. The influence of atmospheric features on synoptic-scale moisture advection was also analyzed; stronger extratropical cyclones and Great Plains low-level jet occurrences lead to increased meridional moisture flux.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4321-4346
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Climate
Issue number14
StatePublished - 2019


  • Climatology
  • Moisture/moisture budget
  • Severe storms
  • Storm environments
  • Synoptic-scale processes
  • Thunderstorms


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