Outsiders in nursing-voices of black african born nurses & students in the us: An integrative review

Kechi Iheduru-Anderson, Christiana Akanegbu, Jeff Inungu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this integrative review was to describe the experience of being outsiders in nursing as described by Black African Born Nurses and Student Nurses (BABN&SN) in the U.S., give voice to their experiences in U.S. academia and healthcare settings, discuss the implications of the BABN&SN othering on the U.S. healthcare systems, and offer recommendations to address the issues based on the literature. Methods: An integrative review approach discussed by Whittemore and Knafl was utilized to review literature from nursing journal published from 2008 to 2019. Results: Major findings include collegial/peer isolation and loneliness; racism and discrimination, unwelcoming environment, silencing of voices, personal resilience, and sense of belonging. The results of this review indicate that BABN&SN experience in U.S. nursing contribute to harrowing periods of feeling like ‘an outsider.’ Conclusions: BABN&SN are integral part of the U.S. nursing workforce and the healthcare system. Academic and work environments that support all nurses and students, despite their perceived differences, are essential to promoting an inclusive environment. Understanding the relational pattern that guides the BABN&SN socialization into nursing is vital to developing targeted support especially when entering the clinical practice environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-134
Number of pages15
JournalOpen Nursing Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2020


  • Cultural competency
  • Education-nursing
  • Healthcare disparities
  • Loneliness
  • Racism
  • Socialization
  • Students-nursing
  • Workplace


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