IMPORTANCE: Reports of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) occurring in the setting of neoplasia suggest that aquaporin-4 autoimmunitymay in some cases have a paraneoplastic basis. OBSERVATIONS: In this case report, we describe a patient with NMOSD whose test results were seropositive for aquaporin-4 IgG and who had a hepatic metastasis from a small-bowel neuroendocrine tumor. The tumor cells expressed aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity. She presented to the Neurology Department atWayne State University with bilateral leg weakness, ascending paresthesias, and decreased sensation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This case extends the context of NMOSD as a paraneoplastic disorder.