Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn with D-transposition of the Great Arteries: Management and Prognosis

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Objective: There is a paucity of data on clinical correlates and outcomes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) in the era of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our objective was to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes of infants with D-TGA with and without PH, defined as hypoxemia that required iNO and/or ECMO. Methods: We undertook a single-center retrospective chart review involving infants with gestational age ≥32 weeks with D-TGA who, underwent arterial switch operation over a 12-year period. Demographic and clinical data, details of the repair and postoperative complications were abstracted. Results: Our cohort (n = 93), 61 (66%) of whom were males, had a mean (SD) gestational age and birth weight of 38.7 (1.8) weeks and 3.2 (0.6) kg, respectively. PH requiring iNO and/or ECMO was noted in 20 (21.5%) infants. Infants with PH had significantly lower birth weight [2.8 (0.56) vs. 3.33 (0.61)] and gestational age [37.7 (2.1) vs. 38.9 (1.7)] than those without PH. Rates of postoperative complications (duration of pressors, sedative medicaiton and duration of hospital stay, and mechanical ventilation were higher in the group with PH. Of the five (5.4%) infants who died, four received iNO and ECMO. Death or postoperative complications tended to be associated with lower gestational age [OR 0.689; 95% CI: 0.469–1.012, P = 0.058] but not with D-TGA category or bypass duration. Conclusions: Despite aggressive treatment with iNO and ECMO, the coexistence of PH in this population is associated with higher rates of mortality and postoperative complications. Our results also suggest that an early term birth may be associated with PH in infants with D-TGA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-244
Number of pages6
JournalCongenital Heart Disease
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • Outcome
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Transposition of Great Arteries


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