Genotypes from 10 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were used to make assessments of population structure, measurements of gene flow, and attempts to genetically segregate polymorphic host fish-attracting mantle displays for the wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1820 - an endangered species in Canada. Specimens were collected from seven localities - six in the Great Lakes drainages of Ontario, Canada, and one from the Little Tennessee River in North Carolina, USA. Four distinct and sympatric mantle display morphologies were observed on female L. fasciola. Displays could not be distinguished genetically using analysis of molecular variance and genotypic assignment tests. The diversity of mantle displays was correlated with the overall genetic diversity observed among populations of L. fasciola. In managing populations of L. fasciola for propagation, augmentation, and translocation, polymorphic lures should be represented in proportion to what is observed in wild populations. Through moderately high FST values and high assignment to population in genotype assignment tests, genetic structure was evident among the river drainages. Within-drainage gene flow was very high, and sampling localities within the Ontario drainages displayed panmixia. Efforts in artificial propagation and possible translocations to reintroduce or augment populations should be made to maintain the substantial levels of genetic variation while maintaining distinctiveness.