Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP), inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, has been reported to be associated with mutations in the gene encoding the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). The clinical features include the presence of isolated erythrocytosis, low erythropoietin (Epo) levels, normal hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to exogenous Epo in vitro and no progression to leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Less than 15% of PFCP families have an identifiable EPOR mutation. Abnormalities of other genes are therefore likely responsible for the phenotype of the majority PFCP patients. In this study we report a family segregating PFCP with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, where 7 of 14 members of the family were affected in four generations. This family was studied previously and an EPOR mutation was ruled out by sequencing and by genetic means. Here, we confirmed by linkage analysis that the disease phenotype was not linked to the Epo and EPOR genes. We then performed a genomewide screen with 410 polymorphic markers at average spacing 7.67 cM to locate the chromosomal region responsible for PFCP. We identified a region in 7q22.1-7q22.2 with a suggestive LOD score of 1.84, from our data this is the most likely location of a candidate region responsible for PFCP in this family.