Currently, a high carbohydrate/low fat diet is recommended for patients with hypertension; however, the potentially important role that the composition of dietary fat and carbohydrate plays in hypertension and the development of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been well characterized. Recent studies demonstrate that LVH can also be triggered by activation of insulin signaling pathways, altered adipokine levels, or the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), suggesting that metabolic alterations play a role in the pathophysiology of LVH. Hypertensive patients with high plasma insulin or metabolic syndrome have a greater occurrence of LVH, which could be due to insulin activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt and its downstream targets in the heart, resulting in cellular hypertrophy. PPARs also activate cardiac gene expression and growth and are stimulated by fatty acids and consumption of a high fat diet. Dietary intake of fats and carbohydrate and the resultant effects of plasma insulin, adipokine, and lipid concentrations may affect cardiomyocyte size and function, particularly in the setting of chronic hypertension. This review discusses potential mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrates and fats ca affect cardiac growth, metabolism, and function, mainly in the context of pressure overload-induced LVH.